Linux Kernel

Android is built on top of a solid and proven foundation: the Linux kernel. Created by Linus Torvalds in 1991, Linux can be found today in everything from wristwatches to supercomputers. Linux provides the hardware abstraction layer for Android, allowing Android to be ported to a wide variety of platforms in the future.

Internally, Android uses Linux for its memory management, process management, networking, and other operating system services. The Android phone user will never see Linux, and your programs will not

Applications and Widgets

Home

Contacts

Browser

Widgets

Your App Here

Application Framework

Activity

Manager

Package Manager

Window Manager

Telephony Manager

Content Providers

View System

Notification Manager

Resource

Location Sensor

Manager Manager

Libraries

I Surface I Manager

Media Framework

SQLite

OpenGL 1 ES

FreeType

WebKit

SGL

SSL

Core Libraries

Daivik Virtual Machine

Linux Kernel [ Display Driver J [

Bluetooth Driver

Keypad Driver

USB Driver

Camera Driver

WiFi Driver

J [ Management j

Audio Drivers

Figure 2.1: Android system architecture make Linux calls directly. As a developer, though, you'll need to be aware it's there.

Some utilities you need during development interact with Linux. For example, the adb shell command1 will open a Linux shell in which you can enter other commands to run on the device. From there you can examine the Linux file system, view active processes, and so forth, subject to security restrictions.

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