Classes that are declared outside of any class are known as top-level classes. Java also supports nested classes, which are classes declared as members of other classes or scopes. Nested classes help you implement top-level class architecture.
There are four kinds of nested classes: static member classes, nonstatic member classes, anonymous classes, and local classes. The latter three categories are known as inner classes.
This section introduces you to static member classes and inner classes. For each kind of nested class, I provide you with a brief introduction, an abstract example, and a more practical example. The section then briefly examines the topic of nesting interfaces within classes.
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