## How OpenGL ES Calculates Lighting Vertex Normals

You know that the intensity of the reflected light bouncing back from an object depends on the angle it hits the surface of the object. OpenGL ES uses this fact to calculate lighting. It does so by using vertex normals, which we have to define in our code, just as we define texture coordinates or vertex colors. Figure 11-4 shows a sphere with its vertex normals. Figure 11-4:.^ sphere and its vertex normals

Normals are simply unit-length vectors that point in the direction a surface is facing. In our case a surface is a triangle. Instead of specifying a surface normal, though, we have to specify a vertex normal. The difference between a surface normal and a vertex normal is that the vertex normal might not have to point in the same direction as the surface normal. We can clearly see this in Figure 11-4, where each vertex normal is actually the average of the normals of the triangles that vertex belongs to. This averaging makes for a smooth shading of the object.

When we render an object with vertex normals and lighting enabled, OpenGL ES will determine the angle between each vertex and light source. With this angle it can calculate the vertex's color based on the ambient, diffuse, and specular properties of the material of the object and the light source. The end result is a color for each vertex of an object that is then interpolated over each triangle in combination with the calculated colors of the other vertices. This interpolated color will then be combined with any texture maps we apply to the object.

This sounds scary but it really isn't that bad. All we need to do is enable lighting and specify the light sources, the material for the object we want to render, and the vertex normals, in addition to the other vertex attributes we usually specify, like position or texture coordinates. Let's have a look how to implement all that with OpenGL ES.